Tuning into others, its all about listening

We are all empathic.  Some of us are more empathic then others, and can ‘feel’ the vibes of those around us.  Yes, this is a human super power for some, but an ordinary attribute of being human for us all.  What is meant by this is that some people are intuitive, they can feel the energy systems of those around them.  For example an intuitive can feel the thoughts and feelings of those individuals in their immediate space, or individuals who they are connected to.  Thoughts are energy, just as feelings are energy.

But listening is something most of us can do without having a heightened ability to feel energy.  Empathic listening is also called reflective listening, is a way to tune into the people around you and strengthen your understanding of them and the trust between you two.

By tuning into others we can be able to discern emotions and/or intentions of others.  Yale University researchers have learned that when we focus on the vocals and facial cues we be get closer to sharpening our empathic skill set. In a series of five different experiments, individuals who observed without speaking or reacting where able to more accurately tune into the emotions  being expressed by others.

Many people can relate to this in here is an example how.  When we send text messages, we tend to stay monotone.  With the use of emoji characters we can enhance our words and be more descriptive, alluding to the emotions we want to express.  If someone sends you a text and says, “where are you?”  There is little to infer about the tone they are speaking in, or what their emotions are.  Now on the flip side, if this same person calls you and says, “where are you”, you might hear their agitation, curiously, ect. and you will be able to choose your next words with greater clarity and understand the situation better as well.

The magnitude of being the observer in your life is the key to tuning into the feelings and intentions of those around you.   Clearing your mind, becoming present in the moment, and listening is how you can shape your super human abilities to tune into others.

  • Nomi Shmerling, Ph.D (c)

American Psychological Association. (2017, October 10). Best Way to Recognize Emotion in Others: Listen. NeuroscienceNews. Retrieved October 10, 2017 from http://neurosciencenews.com/listen-emotion-7708/


Dear Universe, I write you to say…WTF!

We plan, we coordinate, we spend hours visualizing what we want the Universe to give us only to be met with a ferris wheel of everything we have spent time sweeping under the rug.  The lessons of materialism, self love, self empowerment, inner independence, boundaries, ect.  They come into our life like continuous waves presenting challenges on our shores.  In today’s energy, you are being asked over and over to deal with your darkest shadows, and the waves will continue to come unless you learn to do two things for yourself, Listen and Surrender.  This is the biggest reason why our world feels so chaotic today, shadows from every closet are coming into the light for release, and even the very best of us have a few to deal with for the shift we are all collectively moving toward.

This is life!  No sugar coating it.  As a soul, you set out to learn lessons that can elevate who you are and what you know in this world.  This is the name of the game for all of us.  But why do some seem to flow through life with less turbulence than others?

They learned to listen and surrender.

How do you begin?  Listening to you gut, what your heart is telling you, is how you find out more about what you are suppose to do.  The best advise I can offer you is to sit with the darkness and understand more about it.  Don’t over analyze this.  Feel what it is telling you.  Sometimes the reason we got in this position is drastically related to the actual event, it tends to have an anchor in our subconscious.   For example, a hurt heart might be related to a subconscious feeling of needing to feel important because our mom didn’t hug you enough.  Our subconscious works just like this, so pay attention to what you are truly feeling from your heart center, not your head center.

What area of your dark days do you find light?  Is it when you are outside gardening? Walking you dog? Having lunch with a friend? Can you think of one thing? Great!  Then make a deal with yourself that you will do whatever gives you moments of light, every day.  If you find yourself gardening for 3 months, that is most likely the time the Universe needed you to work on this so it could prepare your next steps.  We are still here on Earth, and miracles do happen but they take some divine coordination, and that means the timing has to be precise. Our patience with the universe as the next steps are prepared will be the best tool that you can learn to cultivate for yourself.  Take care of you NOW, and the Universe will take care of you later.

Seriously, it is that easy.  Find the one thing that brings you light  into your day and do it. It might be the thing you do for money.  It might be taking bath, or taking a walk by the river.  The idea is that light seeks out light.  Slowly you bringing light into your dark days and you will find that it will guide you to the exact time and space you need to be at the precise moment in the future. But understand that the darkness will continue to challenge this balance in your life unless you can simultaneously learn to limit the source of your darkness.  Is that you job, your partner, or living situation?  This will be a balance you will have to set intentions for balancing.   Be patient with yourself, do not set timeline!  No not set timelines!  This is how we get disappointed with lack of delivery, or not being where we expected to be.

Anything can be your light!  And when you find it, you have begun to listen. That is what the Universe is telling you that you need to focus on.  To bring joy back into your heart, and trust back into the Universal order of all things. Which leads us to surrendering.

When you tell the universe that you want this or that, you are doing this for yourself.  Please listen to that again, you are doing it for yourself.  The Universe, you higher self, your angels, your guides, ALL OF IT… knows what you need more than you know at times.  Why?  We have forgotten that when trouble comes into our life, it is typically because we have been ignoring the many signs the Universe had been giving us that change is needed and the timing is now.  The little pushes, the ideas that where given to you, opportunities you passed by were all signs to prepare for change.  When we become so distracted, or allow to be guided by our Ego, we find ourselves on the doorstep of the Universal hammer to the head.  I speak from personal experience in this arena.  When change is needed, it makes no difference how well you manifest what you want our of life, if its is not in the cards you will be exerting energy that you should be reserving.

When your world is crumbing down upon you, there is a message in it.  What it is, is only known to yourself.  Typically it is another opportunity to heal from a fear, a belief, to gain greater insight to a behavior you have been enacting.  There are clues everywhere for you, but it means you have to be honest with yourself and with your situation at hand.

Nicole-Burton-Parvana-Photography-model-is-photog-Surrender.jpgSurrendering to what you have dreamscaped your life to be, and expectations of how people should be treating you, there is no room for these ego driven interpretations to life where you are going,  surrender them.  Being a co-creator of your life, means you have to know what you really want, and expect it to come to you.  Please understand that that this could mean that at times things will need to be cleared in order for delivery of what the Universe is creating for you.  We as humans are really good about placing barrier in front of ourselves, and those barriers are typically life’s best stable comforts.

So the next time you write a letter to the universe and spell out what you want, use it as an exercise to determine what you are really asking for.  What do you really want?  Because that is what the Universe is asking you to become aware of.  Then sit back and listen to where to tells you to go next, and surrender to your idea of how the delivery system will be constructed as.  Expect miracles, and be patient as they are being created!

-Nomi Shmerling, Ph.D (c)


To Smartphone or not to Smartphone, that is the question.


A 2015 study conducted by the Pew Research Center showed a snapshot of the average smartphone consumers and their relationship with the devise.

  •  2/3 of Americans own smartphones.
  • 15% of Americas ages 18-29 use Smartphones for their online use.
  • 62% of smartphone owners have used their phone in the past year to look up information about a health condition.
  • 57% have used their phone to do online banking.
  • 44% have used their phone to look up real estate listings or other information about a place to live.
  • 43% looked up info about their job.
  • 40% to look up government services or information.
  • 30% to take a class or get educational content.
  • 18% to submit a job application.-

54% of Smartphone users say their phone is not always needed.

46% say it is something they couldn’t live without it.


After reading those statistics how you do you feel about your smart phone in your life?  Do you have a love hate relationship?  Do you sleep with each other?  Do you interact for as long as a high percentage of American adults – 3 hours a day!? It can take a long time for us to get comfortable with the honest answers to these questions and many other that ultimately compete with higher states of well being for ourselves.

Try asking yourself how my phone contributes in a good way to my life, and what would life be like without the phone”.  This is an interesting exercise if you are able to be honest with yourself.  Be aware of the excuses you supply yourself like, “I check my weather from my phone, and without it I won’t know if I should bring an umbrella or jacket for later”… I promise you there are other ways to find out if you need to prepare for inclement weather!   Ask yourself this question for 1 week.  You might find yourself becoming more and more honest with yourself as the days past, and still find a logic to keep your smart phone around.  Thats ok!  What you are doing is bringing a new set of perspectives into focus, and ultimately you could be building a new relationship with your phone.


Photos.  The phone was used to capture life events with our kids, family, family, food, sites of amusement, art, ect.  And there are even individuals who buy their phones based on their cameras, we all know then! Ask your self this questions,  “Is my phone contributing in a good way for me to preserve life’s amazing moments? Yes, the phone is a multi use tool, it is the phone and a camera.  You no longer need to carry a camera and a phone around as two separate devises! Do you print your cell phone pictures?  If you phone gets lost of stollen, or your computer crashes, would you loose some/most/all of your digital pictures.  Maybe your new relationship becomes that you take your camera with you on certain days, like when you go to the river with your family or friends, or you celebrate a special event, or go somewhere special in the world.  A fun past time for many of us is to sit and look at old picture albums with our family and friends.  One of my fondest memories is looking at my old pictures with my kids next to me, teaching them about who their mommy was before they were born!  Digital or traditional, asking you yourself about the cell phone in your life as a camera is a great way to help you define what you really want. 


Time Robber.  This is a hard reality to face, but we each can do it with our inner bravery.  The questions was, “Do I spend time on my phone while my friends, loved ones, or even kids are sharing space with me?” It is not an uncommon sight where you can see a groups of people on their phone’s while at a restaurant sitting with others at the same table, or individually sitting at a coffee shop interacting with social media rather than the person sitting at the next table, or my favorite which is sitting on the train and noticing your the only one without your phone out.  A fun game to play for a day is try to spot the people who are NOT on their phones while your out and about town or even at home.  But do it with an open mind and ask yourself if that looks like you from time to time.  Being honest with yourself is the only way to redefine our relationships in life, and this includes the one with our smart phone. And remember, you don’t have to vocalize any of these answers, you doing this for you!  The title of this blog caught your attention because you have already had similar questions rattling around your head.

How to cut the cord and set new boundaries

  1. Try leaving your phone in locations that you can not see it or hear it, or plugged in with the volume turned off.
  2. Practice not getting up to respond to the new alert you just heard.
  3. Turn the cellular data off as an exercise.  On the iPhone, you can go into the settings, select cellular, and then turn off data.  It would turn my iPhone into an iPod with a phone.  By doing this you can enable the phone capabilities, but deactivate your ability to  surf the internet or Facebook, not check mail, ect.
  4. Delete those apps that consume your attention.  I.e. Facebook!
  5. Define what your new relationship is with you smart phone, and set some boundaries around the areas of you life that you think will for you highest good, and those who’s lives you effect.


Nomi Shmerling, Ph.D (c)


20 way to be more Compassionate

Compassion.jpgMany of us feel that there is more we can do in this life.  There is more we can give.  There is more we can teach, lead, or contribute to our families, communities or world in general.  A compassionate act of kindness can be the medicine to soothe that divine calling you feeling within you.

Compassion is simply thinking with your HEART!  What does it tell you to do?  This world is full of compassionate acts every minute of the day, only we tend to not be exposed to them because our T.V. and radio stations like to give us all the negative, frustrating, or flat our crazy these days.

Cultivating compassion can be the best remedy for the call to service so many of us feel.  We want to help.  We want to do more.  Well by golly we can!  And here are 10 way to cultivate compassion in your life today.

  1. Allow the person in back of you in line to go ahead of you.
  2. Share a smile and a compliment with a stranger, like  “You have such a nice smile”.
  3. Call a friend and ask how they are doing, and offer nothing about yourself unless asked.
  4. Bake brownies or buy some lunch for your local community service men and women like the firemen and women, police officers, postal workers, ect.
  5. Send 10 cards of happiness and joy to 10 strangers from the white pages.  Put a wonder uplifting phrase inside like, ” You are pure and perfect just the way you are.”
  6. Help bag your own groceries, at the store and say thank you to the cashier and bagger both!
  7. Bring the mail, garbage, and recycling people a cold bottle of water and snack.
  8. Buy a bag of groceries and drop it off at your local food shelter.
  9. Invite a friend over for a meal, tea, or coffee, and ask how they are doing without venting about your troubles.
  10. Leave flowers on your neighbors door step without a reason.
  11. Sit with a friend, a child or spouse and JUST LISTEN.  Offer no worlds other than that you are here with them.  Allow them to vent, and provide a supportive space to do it.
  12. Hold the door open for someone.
  13. Allow people to come over into your lane while your driving, and send them a smile instead of the middle finger.  Make an intention before you get in the car that you will be of service and embody compassionate calmness.  Driving the car these days can be stressful, particularly in rush hour traffic.
  14. Sponsor a child over seas!  For as little as $38 a month, you can help feed, and medicate a child who is born into an improvised area of our world.  www. Compassion.com is a place you can do this.  (I am not supporting this website, rather showing you an example).
  15. Tell your family you love them!  This can be hard for some of us, but the words ‘I LOVE YOU” are healing and help to open the hearts our ourselves and others who have been hurt.
  16. Volunteer your time with an organization that aligns with your values and beliefs.  As little as 2 hours a month is a lot to an organization that is in need of helpers to make their mission reach out into the community. /www.volunteermatch.org is a great way to find out about opportunities in your community.
  17. Bring a treat like brownies and leave it in your break room at work with a little note that say, “Just because life is beautiful”.  This will help shine light in a place that so many people do not find happiness within.
  18. Buy coffee, lunch, or whatever for the car in behind you in the drive though line.  This might become the best thing in that person’s life that day!
  19. Give thanks for life!  Speak to whoever you believe in, or whatever you believe in and say thank you for the life you live!
  20. Look at your self in the mirror and tell yourself “I AM PERFECT AND I LOVE MYSELF UNCONDITIONALLY”.  Say this everyday until you truly know it to be true, and you truly feel the love for yourself.  This is the biggest was to cultivate greater acts of compassion in the world lasting for a life time of service to others.

These are just a few ways you can find ways to integrate compassion into your life.  If you have children, involve them in the act of kindness and ask them if they can think of way to cultivate more compassionate acts.

Take it to the next level, and make it a daily habit.  You can start by extending your heart for one compassionate act a day, and keep moving the bar up till you are begging to feel that you are making the difference you where called to do.

Our world is changing, and in a beautiful way.  Cultivating more compassion is a way you can actively assist these changes ahead of you.  You never know, you might find a bigger purpose to life hiding within the fringes of these heart felt acts of compassion.


Nomi Shmerling, Ph.D. (C)

When past lives leak into your current life


Have you had a memory of a past life?  Or maybe gone to a past life regression?  Well I can answer yes to both, and have learned a lot about why I remembered key lives, and what mystical expereinces happened after I regained those memories.

I remembered a past life while I was ironing one day, honest truth.  Out of no where I was seeing a scene in my mind’s eye that was in ancient Egypt.  I knew who I was immediately, and I knew who the other person in the vision was.  I saw myself reaching for a very tall man who was dressed in Gladiator type clothing.  He was a very large man, and I was a petite women.  Who we each were is not important, what I want to share with you is why I remembered this event, and how it helped me heal both this life and the past.

After remembering this life,  I became depressed for a few days after I had the memory.  I intuitively knew I had embodied the emotions from my past life in this current life, and they needed to be healed.  So I processed whatever was going on with me… I cried, I wrote poetry, I took baths…I was depressed.  Eventually the residual feelings from this memory wore off and I honestly felt I had processed what had attached itself to me.

A tremendous amount of clarity was also acquired, as the man I had remembered in my past life, was indeed someone who was in my current life.  Although our relationship in the current life is different, the raw feelings of missing him in the past life came rushing into my current life and needed to be healed and loved.  Both of which happened.


Another past life memory I have is as a woman in the dark ages, who was burned at the stake.  So I guess you could call me a ‘witch’, lol.  I understood everything in this vision.     This memory was evoked from a past life regression with a practitioner.

I was caring for four sick people in my house.  One was in bed, one sitting by the fire, and 2 at a table. I was cooking food for them in a caldron over the fire.   My teacher was on a horse outside the house (he is now one of my spirit guides), and was leaving because “they were coming.”  I stayed.  So, we said good bye to each other, then I then zoomed out and then began viewing myself tied to a wooded pole, and was being burned alive, utop a large mound of twigs and branches.  I was not in my body, but could see myself screaming in pain.

I showed myself this life, because I was having residual fears in my current life around the concept of being a healer.  I simply put, was not believing myself to be a healer.  This past life was shown to me to show me why I was having the feelings I was having, particular since I was in grad school working on a Ph.D in psychology.

The most powerful thing happened a few months later.  I was listening to something on the youtube while I was cleaning the dishes, and I heard something mentioned like, ” “They have stopped you before and they will try to do it again…” I began to cry, right there at the sink.  I felt the me from the dark ages standing in the body I am incarnated in today.  I felt her weeping so hard, saying, ” They killed me” over and over as she sobbed.  I allowed the emotions to flow for a few minutes then I grounded myself with some strong deep breathes and repeated, “We are here and we are strong.”  I repeated that a few times till I truly felt the strength inside me align with the me today and the me in the pas,  together to live this life as a healer.


I share these stories with you to share with you how multi-dimentiontial it is to have a memory from your past.  In both lives brought forward, I healed and integrated those Selves with the me as I create in this life.

It is true that many of the issues we have in our lives are rooted in issues that we have carried over the veil with us.  My personal stories are like many of who have sought out to heal our soul and then be lead to the exact opportunities to do just that.  I realized that a healing I had been doing over the course of my 20’s and 30’s was indeed multi-demenstioanl healing.  And because I am still on this path, I invite future opportunities to awaken and to be loved.

Exceptional Human Experiences

dreams_of_flying_by_caitlin_morey-d5tolyw.jpgWHAT?  Exceptional Human Experiences (EHEs) probably never crossed though your mind before, so why would I be bringing it up.  Well to be honest, we should be asking why we never heard of them before.  Or have we?

Examples of EHEs can be known to be lucid dreaming, meditating, day dreaming, clairvoyance, Déjà Vu, use and understanding of our intuition, and many more.  Rhea White was a parapsychologist who coined the term EHE in 1990, by identifying 60 different human experiences that can be classified as exceptional.

If we all thought and talked about our EHEs like we so sports and the news, we might find that we can all expect we are exceptional humans, and not the logical minded individuals science has painted us to me.  We are more mysterious but are left to learning out these mysteries by ourselves mostly.

By sharing stories of each of our EHEs we jointly become a species of human that are not only mysterious, but divine. When we have the ability to notice the difference between, intuition and logic, soulful thinking and ego centric thinking, we can start to become the observer our lives and we will be able to take the EHEs that occur in our lives and sift through them for confirmation, insight, direction and understanding.

Here is one of my EHEs to share with you:

It was 2003 and I had just moved to Seattle, Washington and was settling myself in.  I had found an apartment in the city, was working a part-time job to meet the needs I had, and was beginning a journey of healing myself from a childhood that left me with many emotional scars.  All in all, I felt wonderful!    I had total control of my time and what I did with it.  I enjoyed walking around the city, and learning a lot about myself and life in general.

One day I had decided to take a nap, a very unusual thing for me as I have always enjoyed the daytime feeling and never wanted to sleep those precious hours of daylight way.  But that was not so apparent one Fall day when I laid down on the sofa and drifted away, only to find myself in the midst of a lucid dream.  Lucid dreaming is an experience when a dreamer is aware that they are dreaming while dreaming.

I was fully aware I was in a dream, but felt I had a degree of control over what I was doing and what I was saying.  I found myself sitting on a cloud, with my feet dangling off the edge.  This setting was familiar to me, as I once came to this cloud when I was a younger girl (7 years old) and met my Great Grandmother who had recently passed away.  But I know that was not who I was meeting, something inside me knew what was going on, but another aspect of me (the aspect I am familiar with when I am awake) was a little curious what I was doing way up high in the clouds.

It was peaceful and bright, and I remembering feeling very calm and then, it happened!  A little boy, maybe 2 or 3 years old, walked up to me on my left side, and said to me, “Hi!” Out of curiosity I asked him who he was, and he responded to me, “I’m Shilo, your son.”

I am not sure for how much longer we spoke to each other, but I do remember when I woke up I was taken back by the dream.  I was curious, was I pregnant?  With that thought in my head, I collected my things and started walking up the street to Fred Meyer (a Pacific Northwest grocery/home goods chain).  I grabbed a pregnancy test, and for some reason was pulled to go to the arts and craft section.  I was looking for crochet needles and yarn, to knit a scarf.

It should be said, I had never crocheted before, nor did I previously know how to knit.  Getting home, I took the test.  No, I was not pregnant.  And that night I knitted 2 scarves, one for me and one for my sister in Atlanta.  But now, more than 12 years later, I can not remember how to knit a scarf.  It was if that memory could have been from a past life, and as quickly as it came, I let it go again.

That day stands out in my memory so vividly.  Visitation dreams are those in which we have contact with another spirit or entity that could be a family member, ancestor, close friend, or loved one who is alive, or has passed on.  I only understood this was a visitation dream when time moved forward.

I had 2 more dreams where I met Shilo on the same cloud (in 2007 and 2010), and we had a continuing conversations, and I always knew who he was even though he had aged.  The dream in 2007, Shilo had aged to around 7 years old, and I was very happy to see him.  In my waking life, this dream came to me when I had first started dating my future husband.  The next dream came in 2010, coincidently right before I got pregnant with my first son, Shilo (born 9/24/11).





Aging with grace, the proof is in telomeres


Part 2 with how our nervous system contributes to faster aging.  Lets review for a moment.  The nervous system is like a communication system in your body, carrying messages to the brain.  Within that communication system, you have cells.  Cells are made of DNA, and one of the components of the DNA are what is know as telomeres.

Telomeres are little caps that are on the ends of each of our DNA strands, and their job is to protect our chromosomes.  Sometimes it helps to think of our DNA as a shoelace, and telomeres would be the plastic caps at the ends of each lace. When the ends of the shoelaces become deteriorated, the shoelace becomes frayed and damage.  The same relationship is true of telomeres and DNA strands.  Simply put, short telomeres are bad.  So bad they have been linked to higher likely hood of developing diseases such cancer, stroke, obesity,  vascular dementia, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and diabetes.


How to telomeres become damaged?

Many scientists have studied telomeres and as a result there are many understandings we have gotten to.  But life events and habits tends to speed the aging process up.  PTSD can cause shortened telomeres, stress at the workplace, at home, or in your life in general helps to short them more quickly as well.  Eating a poor diet, and not having regular pattern of exercise.

Telomeres shorten as we age.  The length of your telomeres is inherited from your parents, but what is universal for us all is that they shorten as we age.  Depending on aspects of diet, stress, and exercises they can shorten more quickly, leaving your aging faster than people around you.

How do you lengthen aging telomeres?

  • Reduce stress (meditate, learn to say NO, yoga stretching, take deep breaths to calm yourself down when stress is peaked)
  • Stop smoking
  • Loose excess weight
  • Walk for 30 minutes a day
  • Eat a whole foods, mostly plant-based
  • Meditate (can’t say it enough)
  • Take a multivitamin
  • Master sleeping better, all night long!
  • Stopping working so hard, and ask yourself what is more important (i.e. your health or meeting a deadline and getting a bigger paycheck doing it)
  • Change how you wrangle stress (I choose to stop and take deep breaths to recenter and relax myself)
  • Cut back on drinking alcohol*

Research out of UCSF show that mindfulness and a conscious diet of more whole foods is linked to telomere growth.  Dr. Dean Ornish researched and found that in his study, individuals who ate mostly a vegan diet (rich in plant based proteins, fruits, vegetable, unrefined grains, and legumes with only 10% of their calories coming from fat) resulted with lengthening of the telomeres.  Healthy lifestyle change is where it at!

Dr. Sara Gottfried’s story

Dr. Sara Gottfried is aboard certified Harvard/MIT/UCSF trained gynecologist who has learned a lot of telomere and overall women’s health.  She has an interesting story.  A  doctor who ate well (mostly vegetarian), drank lots of water, and would exercise daily found out she had very short telomeres.  She was aging 20 years faster than her chronological age.  The largest culprit in her life was STRESS.

The life many of us life, with families, children, jobs, balancing of schedules, deadlines, appointments, cooking, ect.  She had an ‘ah ha’ moment when she decided to switch her running exercise routine to be replaced by low impact, body strengthening palates and yoga.  She also began a daily meditation practice, and says that she does not negotiate that time of her day today.  20 minutes of meditation is her new habit, and has shown her tremendous change.  She also began looking at what foods where best for her body, and made decision that were right for her.

Simply put she reversed the aging processes for herself.  Her telomeres grew longer, and she got younger looking, and feels amazing as a result.

She wrote and published a protocol for lengthening your telomeres and reversing the aging process.  Younger: A breakthrough program to reset your genes, reverse aging, and turn back the clock 10 years that can teach you the ABCs of getting started on learning more about the telomeres and thinking about some key lifestyle changes.images.jpeg

-Nomi Shmerling, PhD (c)


*men who don’t drink have longer telomeres.  Women do good when they have 1 serving of alcohol a week (1 beer, 5 fluid ounces of wine, 1.5 fluid ounces of distilled spirits).

Telomere Photo reference:

Eisenberg DTA. An evolutionary review of human telomere biology: the thrifty telomere hypothesis and notes on potential adaptive paternal effects. American Journal of Human Biology. 2011;23:149–167.